## Information technology – Wikipedia

john rambo

Computer-based technology

Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data[1] or information. IT is typically used within the context of business operations as opposed to personal or entertainment technologies.[2] IT is considered to be a subset of information and communications technology (ICT). An information technology system (IT system) is generally an information system, a communications system or, more specifically speaking, a computer system – including all hardware, software and peripheral equipment – operated by a limited group of users.

Humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating, and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing in about 3000 BC,[3] but the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review; authors Harold J. Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler commented that “the new technology does not

## Perangkat lunak – Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

john rambo

Perangkat lunak atau peranti lunak (bahasa Inggris: software) adalah istilah khusus untuk data yang diformat, dan disimpan secara digital, termasuk program komputer, dokumentasinya, dan berbagai informasi yang bisa dibaca, dan ditulis oleh komputer. Dengan kata lain, bagian sistem komputer yang tidak berwujud. Istilah ini menonjolkan perbedaan dengan perangkat keras komputer.[1]

Pembuatan perangkat lunak itu sendiri memerlukan “bahasa pemrograman” yang ditulis oleh seorang pemrogram untuk selanjutnya dikompilasi dengan aplikasi kompiler sehingga menjadi kode yang bisa dikenali oleh mesin hardware. Perangkat lunak seperti Windows atau Linux bisa disebut sebagai nyawa dari komputer, di mana tanpa diinstal sistem operasi tersebut maka komputer tidak dapat dijalankan. Perangkat lunak sistem operasi biasanya tersimpan di Partisi C sehingga saat komputer mengalami masalah, Partisi C yang terkena imbas. Perangkat lunak lain juga tersimpan di Partisi C yang apabila komponen tidak lagi berjalan maksimal dapat diuninstal dan diinstal ulang. Data-data lain lebih baik disimpan di partisi

john rambo

Programming paradigms are a way to classify programming languages based on their features. Languages can be classified into multiple paradigms.

Some paradigms are concerned mainly with implications for the execution model of the language, such as allowing side effects, or whether the sequence of operations is defined by the execution model. Other paradigms are concerned mainly with the way that code is organized, such as grouping a code into units along with the state that is modified by the code. Yet others are concerned mainly with the style of syntax and grammar.

• imperative in which the programmer instructs the machine how to change its state,
• procedural which groups instructions into procedures,
• object-oriented which groups instructions together with the part of the state they operate on,

## Software – Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

john rambo

Software

Buscador de Programas en Ubuntu 13.10

Se conoce como software[1]​ al soporte lógico de un sistema informático, que comprende el conjunto de los componentes lógicos necesarios que hacen posible la realización de tareas específicas, en contraposición a los componentes físicos que son llamados hardware. La interacción entre el software y el hardware hace operativo un ordenador (u otro dispositivo), es decir, el Software envía instrucciones que el Hardware ejecuta, haciendo posible su funcionamiento.

Los componentes lógicos incluyen, entre muchos otros, las aplicaciones informáticas, tales como el procesador de texto, que permite al usuario realizar todas las tareas concernientes a la edición de textos; el llamado software de sistema, tal como el sistema operativo, que básicamente permite al resto de los programas funcionar adecuadamente, facilitando también la interacción entre los componentes físicos y el resto de las aplicaciones, y proporcionando una interfaz con el usuario.

## R (programming language) – Wikipedia

john rambo

R is a programming language and free software environment for statistical computing and graphics supported by the R Foundation for Statistical Computing.[6] The R language is widely used among statisticians and data miners for developing statistical software[7] and data analysis.[8] Polls, data mining surveys, and studies of scholarly literature databases show substantial increases in popularity;[9] as of February 2020, R ranks 13th in the TIOBE index, a measure of popularity of programming languages.[10]

A GNU package,[11] the official R software environment is written primarily in C, Fortran, and R itself[12] (thus, it is partially self-hosting) and is freely available under the GNU General Public License. Pre-compiled executables are provided for various operating systems. Although R has a command line interface, there are several third-party graphical user interfaces, such as RStudio, an integrated development environment, and Jupyter, a notebook interface.[13][14]

## Dynamic programming – Wikipedia

john rambo

Figure 1. Finding the shortest path in a graph using optimal substructure; a straight line indicates a single edge; a wavy line indicates a shortest path between the two vertices it connects (among other paths, not shown, sharing the same two vertices); the bold line is the overall shortest path from start to goal.

Dynamic programming is both a mathematical optimization method and a computer programming method. The method was developed by Richard Bellman in the 1950s and has found applications in numerous fields, from aerospace engineering to economics. In both contexts it refers to simplifying a complicated problem by breaking it down into simpler sub-problems in a recursive manner. While some decision problems cannot be taken apart this way, decisions that span several points in time do often break apart recursively. Likewise, in computer science, if a problem can be solved optimally by breaking it into sub-problems and then

## Computer science – Wikipedia

john rambo

Study of the theoretical foundations of computation

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of computation and practical techniques for their application.

Computer science is the study of processes that interact with data and that can be represented as data in the form of programs. It enables the use of algorithms to manipulate, store, and communicate digital information. A computer scientist studies the theory of computation and the design of software systems.[1]

Its fields can be divided into theoretical and practical disciplines. Computational complexity theory is highly abstract, while computer graphics emphasizes real-world applications. Programming language theory considers approaches to the description of computational processes, while software engineering involves the use of programming languages and complex systems. Human–computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers useful, usable, and accessible.

## History

The earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital

## Softuer kompjuterik – Wikipedia

john rambo

Softueri (Anglisht: software) quhet bashkësia e programeve kompjuterike dhe të dhënat e tjera që përmbajnë instruksione që i thonë kompjuterit se çfarë duhet të bëjë. Gjithashtu mund të themi se softueri i referohet një apo më shumë programeve kompjtuerike dhe të dhënave të ruajtura në memorien e kompjuterit për arsye të caktuara. Programet softuerike kryjenë funksionin e programit ose duke i dhënë instruksione të drejtëpërdrejta harduerit të kompjuterit ose duke shërbyer si input për programe të tjera.

Termi softuer ka lindur si kontrasit i termit të vjetër harduer (që do të thotë pajisje fizike). Ndryshe nga hardueri, softueri nuk preket ose të shikohet fizikisht.

Softueri në përgjithësi,ndahet në dy grupe:

#### Softueri sistemor (sistemi operativ)

• Një sistem operativ mund të ndahet në dy shtresa:

-1.Shtresa e kontrolit,e cila është e padukshme për shfrytëzuesin.

-2.Shtresa bashkëvepruese,paraqet një bashkësi të të gjitha programeve që bashkëveprojnë

## Integer programming – Wikipedia

john rambo

A mathematical optimization problem restricted to integers

An integer programming problem is a mathematical optimization or feasibility program in which some or all of the variables are restricted to be integers. In many settings the term refers to integer linear programming (ILP), in which the objective function and the constraints (other than the integer constraints) are linear.

Integer programming is NP-complete. In particular, the special case of 0-1 integer linear programming, in which unknowns are binary, and only the restrictions must be satisfied, is one of Karp’s 21 NP-complete problems.

If some decision variables are not discrete the problem is known as a mixed-integer programming problem.[1]

## Canonical and standard form for ILPs

An integer linear program in canonical form is expressed as:[2]

{displaystyle {begin{aligned}&{text{maximize}}&&mathbf

## Computer program – Wikipedia

john rambo

Instructions to be executed by a computer

A computer program is a collection of instructions[1] that can be executed by a computer to perform a specific task. Most computer devices require programs to function properly.

A computer program is usually written by a computer programmer in a programming language. From the program in its human-readable form of source code, a compiler or assembler can derive machine code—a form consisting of instructions that the computer can directly execute. Alternatively, a computer program may be executed with the aid of an interpreter.

A collection of computer programs, libraries, and related data are referred to as software. Computer programs may be categorized along functional lines, such as application software and system software. The underlying method used for some calculation or manipulation is known as an algorithm.

## History

Code-breaking algorithms have existed for centuries. In the 9th century, the Arab