A history of internet shutdowns in Africa and their impact on human rights

john rambo

It’s broadly accepted that there’s a close relationship between development and access to information. One of the first economists to make the link was Amartya Sen, who won the Nobel Prize in 1998 for his contributions to welfare economics.

Increasingly over the past two decades, the internet has been a major factor affecting the right to development. The United Nations definition of this right is that:

Every human person and all peoples are entitled to participate in, contribute to, and enjoy economic, social, cultural and political development.

Today, all African countries have access to the internet, though the digital divide remains huge within and between countries.

In a recent research paper, one of us (Ilori), together with colleagues, examined the effect of network disruptions on human rights and democratic development in sub-Saharan Africa.

The paper concluded that internet shutdowns have impeded the right to development and posed threats to democratic

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Natural History Museum Launches Online Summer Camps For Kids

john rambo

UPPER WEST SIDE, NY — With in-person summer camps and typical summer plans put on hold by the coronavirus pandemic, the American Museum of Natural History is stepping up to offer online programs for kids.

The historic museum on the Upper West Side of Manhattan recently launched a wide-range of thought-provoking online summer science camps for children between the second and ninth grade.

The online activities will include virtual hall visits, guest scientist talks, behind-the-scenes tours, and live-animal encounters. Additionally, there will be offline hands-on science projects, games, and crafts.

The camps will take place starting on July 27 and run until Sept. 2, ranging from $175 to $500 in price.

You can sign up for any of the online summer camps on the museum’s website.

Here are the different programs you can choose from:

Grades 2-3

Keys to the Kingdoms of Life

  • Session 1: Monday, July 27 — Friday,

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history of technology | Summary & Facts

john rambo

History of technology, the development over time of systematic techniques for making and doing things. The term technology, a combination of the Greek technē, “art, craft,” with logos, “word, speech,” meant in Greece a discourse on the arts, both fine and applied. When it first appeared in English in the 17th century, it was used to mean a discussion of the applied arts only, and gradually these “arts” themselves came to be the object of the designation. By the early 20th century, the term embraced a growing range of means, processes, and ideas in addition to tools and machines. By mid-century, technology was defined by such phrases as “the means or activity by which man seeks to change or manipulate his environment.” Even such broad definitions have been criticized by observers who point out the increasing difficulty of distinguishing between scientific inquiry and technological activity.

A

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Event-Driven Programming: Introduction, Tutorial, History

john rambo

In late 2005, I was trying to learn event-driven programming. I searched
the Web for an explanation of the basic concepts of event-driven programming, but I
couldn’t find one. So I wrote one. I hope it will help you in your attempt to learn
event-driven programming.

You can download the paper HERE.

It is available in both PDF format and in Microsoft
Word format. I make it available in Microsoft Word format so that it will be
easy to translate or subset the document, complete with embedded
images.

This document is finalized and no longer being actively maintained, but if you wish
you can leave a review.



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 License.

The Creative Commons Attribution License gives you permission to do
virtually anything you want with this work, including copying all or part of
it, distributing it, and making derived works (including translations)

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History of Computers – Long, Long Ago

john rambo

History of Computers – Long, Long Ago

Definition of a Computer
Simplest definition of a computer: A device that processes input and generates
output

Key words:

  • Input
  • Output
  • Processes
  • Information

Modern Computers are electronic, complex, and interactive, but can be reduced
to simple input-output processing devices

 

History of Computers: 3000 BC to Present

History of Computers – Long, Long Ago
The Abacus

  • beads on rods to count and calculate
  • still widely used in Asia!

 

History of Computers – Way Back When
The Slide Rule 1630

  • based on Napier’s rules for logarithms
  • used until 1970s

 

 

History of Computers – 19th Century
Jacquard Loom

  • used metal cards with punched holes to guide weaving process
  • first stored program – metal cards
  • first computer manufacturing
  • still in use today!

 

 

Charles Babbage – 1792-1871
Difference Engine c.1822

  • huge calculator, never finished

Analytical Engine 1833

  • could store numbers
  • calculating “mill” used punched metal cards for instructions
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Internet History Timeline: ARPANET to the World Wide Web

john rambo

Credit for the initial concept that developed into the World Wide Web is typically given to Leonard Kleinrock. In 1961, he wrote about ARPANET, the predecessor of the Internet, in a paper entitled “Information Flow in Large Communication Nets.” Kleinrock, along with other innnovators such as J.C.R. Licklider, the first director of the Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO), provided the backbone for the ubiquitous stream of emails, media, Facebook postings and tweets that are now shared online every day. Here, then, is a brief history of the Internet:

The precursor to the Internet was jumpstarted in the early days of computing history, in 1969 with the U.S. Defense Department’s Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET). ARPA-funded researchers developed many of the protocols used for Internet communication today. This timeline offers a brief history of the Internet’s evolution:

1965: Two computers at MIT Lincoln Lab communicate with one another using packet-switching

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History of Computers – A Brief Timeline of Their Evolution

john rambo

The computer was born not for entertainment or email but out of a need to solve a serious number-crunching crisis. By 1880, the U.S. population had grown so large that it took more than seven years to tabulate the U.S. Census results. The government sought a faster way to get the job done, giving rise to punch-card based computers that took up entire rooms.

Today, we carry more computing power on our smartphones than was available in these early models. The following brief history of computing is a timeline of how computers evolved from their humble beginnings to the machines of today that surf the Internet, play games and stream multimedia in addition to crunching numbers.

1801: In France, Joseph Marie Jacquard invents a loom that uses punched wooden cards to automatically weave fabric designs. Early computers would use similar punch cards.

1822: English mathematician Charles Babbage conceives

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Brief History of the Internet

john rambo

The original ARPANET grew into the Internet. Internet was based on the idea that there would be multiple independent networks of rather arbitrary design, beginning with the ARPANET as the pioneering packet switching network, but soon to include packet satellite networks, ground-based packet radio networks and other networks. The Internet as we now know it embodies a key underlying technical idea, namely that of open architecture networking. In this approach, the choice of any individual network technology was not dictated by a particular network architecture but rather could be selected freely by a provider and made to interwork with the other networks through a meta-level “Internetworking Architecture”. Up until that time there was only one general method for federating networks. This was the traditional circuit switching method where networks would interconnect at the circuit level, passing individual bits on a synchronous basis along a portion of an end-to-end circuit between

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